So glad to see you here, otg. Everyone, please welcome our newest member, an excellent debater at WS who always has very good info and points. :wave: I have to say this part of the discussion always frustrates me. I'm not feeling we got that much further on it in Kolar's book, either, as we've had the autopsy for years. I really don't agree with Dr. Spitz's theory this was a bruise caused by twisting of the turtleneck, though I know many do, including Thomas. I just find it too coincidental that other autopsy photos of strangulation-by-ligature victims have similar bruising in the same place. I haven't seen any others of a child, though, but my thinking is that the reason it's so severe on JB is that her neck was so tiny and the type of cord used, pulled from behind, put so much pressure dragging across her skin resulted in the large bruise because of the actual "triangulation" of the "carotid triangle," as you say, with the neck bones and muscles. But I certainly can be wrong. Also, I wonder if Kolar was accepting Smit's description of those "marks" on her neck as being from her fingernails, because I don't quite see how that would work if she was already unconscious when it was applied.